what is chocolate made of

In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration established a standard for white chocolate as the "common or usual name of products made from cacao fat (i.e., cocoa butter), milk solids, nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and other safe and suitable ingredients, but containing no nonfat cacao solids". White chocolate is a chocolate confection, pale ivory in color, made from cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids and sometimes vanilla. [74], Chocolate bloom is caused by storage temperature fluctuating or exceeding 24 °C (75 °F), while sugar bloom is caused by temperature below 15 °C (59 °F) or excess humidity. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. [24] By 1602, chocolate had made its way from Spain to Austria. Made from 100% cocoa liquor and bitter unless mixed with other ingredients. At this point, the chocolate process differs depending on the recipe and formulation of the manufacturer. Cocoa, highly concentrated powder made from a paste prepared from cocoa beans of the cacao tree and used in beverages and as a flavoring ingredient. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called "baking chocolate", contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. [51] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (6–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3–4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighing about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. [54] The genetic purity of cocoas sold today as criollo is disputed, as most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties. This step is crucial, as the fermentation process mellows the flavor of the beans and imparts the fruity undertones of the pulp. Baking chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar. The origin of the Nahuatl word is uncertain, as it does not appear in any early Nahuatl source, where the word for chocolate drink is cacahuatl, "cacao water". (A.D.) – Using Chocolate", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. The finest, plain dark chocolate couverture contains at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results. This refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids. Food produced from the seed of Theobroma cacao. The six different crystal forms have different properties. Chocolate is a natural product made of these ingredients: Chocolate Liquor: Cocoa beans with their shells removed that have been fermented, roasted and ground until they liquefy. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be seen with the naked eye. (A.D.) – Making Chocolate", "Aztecs and Cacao: the bittersweet past of chocolate", "When cocoa was used as currency – pre-Columbian America – The Fortunes of Money", "Notes of a Gastronome: Extreme Chocolate", "Amazing archive images show how Cadbury cracked Easter egg market", "Where did the first chocolate factory in the U.S. These native American civilizations were the first to recognize the value of the cacao bean, using the pods as … High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, and lesser grades about four to six hours. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than criollo. [82], According to a 2005 study, the average lead concentration of cocoa beans is ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. [53], Trinitario is a natural hybrid of criollo and forastero. Rowntree's of York set up and began producing chocolate in 1862, after buying out the Tuke family business. [70], The temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the milk fat content in the chocolate and the shape of the fat molecules, as well as the form of the cocoa butterfat. [83] Reports from 2014 indicate that "chocolate might be a significant source" of lead ingestion for children if consumption is high (with dark chocolate containing higher amounts),[84][85] and "one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. [88], A few studies have documented allergic reactions from chocolate in children. [128] One solution for fair labor practices is for farmers to become part of an Agricultural cooperative. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. Make the Most of Milk Chocolate. As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance. Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. [14] Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could easily be molded into smooth shapes. The liquor may also be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. Chocolate with a higher fat content will melt at a lower temperature.[71]. ", "Cacao and Chocolate: A Uto-Aztecan perspective", "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 June 2000 relating to cocoa and chocolate products intended for human consumption", Publications Office of the European Union, "US Federal Register – White Chocolate; Establishment of a Standard of Identity", "Bloom Formation on Poorly-Tempered Chocolate and Effects of Seed Addition", "The Rarest Chocolate in the World – Surprise: It's made in Hawai'i", Slavery in Cocoa fields: a horrible "normal", "What's Noka Worth? Early forms of another genotype have also been found in what is now Venezuela. [107] Europe accounts for 45% of the world's chocolate revenue,[108] and the US spent $20 billion in 2013. Producers of high-quality, small-batch chocolate argue that mass production produces bad-quality chocolate. Manufacturers may add other fats, sugars, and milk, all of which increase the caloric content of chocolate. The time and temperature of the roasting depends on the type of beans and their relative moisture levels. ", "Why Chocolate Melts and Jet Planes Don't", "X-rays reveal how chocolate turns white", "Milkfat Fractions Help Beat Blooming Chocolate", "Chocolate: Types (Unsweetened, Bittersweet, Semisweet, Milk), Selection, and Storage", "Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review", "Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination", "Kidney Stones: Overview from the Nephrology Department", "Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis", "Intake of Flavonoid-Rich Wine, Tea, and Chocolate by Elderly Men and Women Is Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance", "Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened Nutrition Facts & Calories", "Candies, chocolate, dark, 70–85% cacao solids Nutrition Facts & Calories", "Effects of Low Doses of Caffeine on Mood, Physiology and Mental Function - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov", "BELGIUM: Government encourages chocolate producers to support international quality label", "BBC News | EUROPE | Euro chocolate war ends", "Report: The Global Market for Chocolate to 2006", "Are We Actually Facing a Chocolate Shortfall? [38], Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. [110] Despite the expanding reach of the chocolate industry internationally, cocoa farmers and labourers in the Ivory Coast are unaware of the uses of the beans; the high cost of chocolate products in the Ivory Coast make it inaccessible to the majority of the population, who do not know what it tastes like. The Spaniards, both men, and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy of this Chocolaté. [14][20] In 1879, the texture and taste of chocolate was further improved when Rudolphe Lindt invented the conching machine.[28]. [96], Excessive consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity to expend the associated calories, can cause weight gain and possibly lead to obesity. Additionally, chocolate is frequently stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. [67][69] The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. [67][68] The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the results of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Chocolate is made from cacao beans — or rather seeds — from the Theobroma cacao tree. Hot chocolate starts in powder form (usually a blend of cocoa powder, sugar, and often includes dairy powder and flavorings or spices) and is typically made with water. The flavor of criollo is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration. Vegetable oils and artificial vanilla flavor are often used in cheaper chocolate to mask poorly fermented and/or roasted beans. This plant produces large, pod-like fruits, each containing 20–60 beans surrounded by … Cacao is the plant matter which … The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pods and placed in piles or bins, allowing access to micro-organisms so fermentation of the pectin-containing material can begin. Learn about the history, processing, and products of cocoa. [25] By 1662, Pope Alexander VII had declared that religious fasts were not broken by consuming chocolate drinks. Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature. Chocolate is one of the all-time favorite sweets which unit different people from various countries and gender. Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. As of 2017, approximately 2.1 million children in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire were involved in farming cocoa, carrying heavy loads, clearing forests, and being exposed to pesticides. Chocolate does continue to be made from unfermented beans in parts of Mexico and Central America for use in traditional dishes. The three main varieties of cacao beans used in chocolate are criollo, forastero, and trinitario. Chocolate bars, either made of solid chocolate or other ingredients coated in chocolate, are eaten as snacks. The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). [67][69] Next, the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (81 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor. It is possible that the Spaniards coined the word (perhaps in order to avoid caca, a vulgar Spanish word for "faeces") by combining the Yucatec Mayan word chocol, "hot", with the Nahuatl word atl, "water". [114] Mars Incorporated, a large privately owned U.S. corporation, produces Mars Bar, Milky Way, M&M's, Twix, and Snickers. The newly mixed chocolate travels through a series of rollers to smooth out the texture before traveling to the conching machine. The African cocoa crop is entirely made up of forastero. [80] Theobromine poisoning is an overdosage reaction to the bitter alkaloid, which happens more frequently in domestic animals than humans. [5][6] International attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor. The speed, temperature, and length of the conching process determines the final texture and flavor of the chocolate, as conching smooths the chocolate and mellows any remaining acidic tones. In general, molten chocolate coming in at 40–50 °C is cooled in heat exchangers to crystallization temperates of about 26–30 °C, passed through a tempering column consisting of spinning plates to induce shear, then warmed slightly to re-melt undesirable crystal formations. When the heat is removed, the cocoa butter crystals become rigid again and come closer together, allowing the chocolate to solidify. Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystals of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate). [37] A higher amount of cocoa solids indicates more bitterness. [100] The Belgian AMBAO certification mark indicates that no non-cocoa vegetable fats have been used in making the chocolate. 100-grams of milk chocolate is an excellent source (over 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary minerals, manganese, phosphorus and zinc. Fairtrade seeks to establish a system of direct trade from developing countries to counteract this unfair system. Some bars that are mostly chocolate have other ingredients blended into the chocolate, such as nuts, raisins, or crisped rice. An investigation in high-priced chocolate", "Chocolate industry avoids collapse as genome published", "Chocolate is on track to go extinct in 40 years", "Criollo Chocolate: Efficient Food of the Gods", "Sensational Chocolates: Discover the Intense Robust flavor of 100% 'Grand Cru' Chocolate", "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity", "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food", "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate Products", "Conching: Crucial Step in Chocolate's Flavor and Texture? Beans arrive at the manufacturing facility, they are packaged and shipped to chocolate, as... Does continue to be made from unfermented beans in parts of Mexico and Central America for use traditional! 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